Reservoirs & Vectors
There are several families of viruses that are naturally present in animal or bird species, but have the ability to cross over and infect humans. Such 'zoonoses' are rare, but the absence of pre-existing immunity in the affected human populations can result in catastrophic loss of life. This was most acutely experience in West Africa from the end of 2014 through into early 2016, when a deadly Ebola virus outbreak swept through 3 West African countries, infected 28,652 people (Suspected, Probable, and Confirmed), with 15,261 laboratory-confirmed Cases and 11,325 deaths (CDC, Apr 2016).
In 2008 a completely novel viral hemorrhagic fever virus (LUJV) was discovered in Zambia, that infected 5 people, killing 4, including the index case and 3 healthcare workers. This novel Old World Arenavirus was the first VHF agent to be discovered in Africa since Ebola virus, some 4 decades earlier. The animal reservoir of this novel arenavirus has not been determined despite several large screening exercise in wild-caught rodents. You can read all about LUJV in our comprehensive overview published in Reviews in Medical Virology (Simulundu et al... 2016).
At HerpeZ we are collaborating with the Zambian Ministry of Health and international partners such as University College London (London, United Kingdom), the Lazzaro Spallanzani Institute (Rome, Italy) (on the PANDORA project) and the Hokkaido University Research Center for Zoonosis Control (Hokkaido, Japan), to ensure that in the event of a future emerging infectious disease outbreaks, the diagnostic capacity is in place to rapidly identify the causal agent, and to provide a rapid diagnostic response.
- First COVID-19 Case in Zambia – Comparative phylogenomic analyses of SARS-CoV-2 detected in African countries. Edgar Simulundu, Francis Mupeta, Pascalina Chanda-Kapata, Ngonda Saasa, Katendi Changula, Walter Muleya, Simbarashe Chitanga, Miniva Mwanza, Paul Simusika, Herman Chambaro, Benjamin Mubemba, Masahiro Kajihara, Duncan Chanda, Lloyd Mulenga, Sombo Fwoloshi, Aaron Lunda Shibemba, Fred Kapaya, Paul Zulu, Kunda Musonda, Mwaka Monze, Nyambe Sinyange, Mazyanga M. Liwewe, Muzala Kapin’a, Peter J. Chipimo, Raymond Hamoonga, Davie Simwaba, William Ngosa, Albertina N. Morales, Nkomba Kayeyi, John Tembo, Matthew Bates, Yasuko Orba, Hirofumi Sawa, Ayato Takada, King S. Nalubamba, Kennedy Malama, Victor Mukonka, Alimuddin Zumla, Nathan Kapata. Int J Infect Dis. 2020
- Is Africa prepared for tackling the COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) epidemic. Lessons from past outbreaks, ongoing pan-African public health efforts, and implications for the future. Kapata N, Ihekweazu C, Ntoumi F, Raji T, Chanda-Kapata P, Mwaba P, Mukonka V, Bates M, Tembo J, Corman V, Mfinanga S, Asogun D, Elton L, Arruda LB, Thomason MJ, Mboera L, Yavlinsky A, Haider N, Simons D, Hollmann L, Lule SA, Veas F, Abdel Hamid MM, Dar O, Edwards S, Vairo F, McHugh TD, Drosten C, Kock R, Ippolito G, Zumla A. Int J Infect Dis. 2020
- Recent advances in the development and evaluation of molecular diagnostics for Ebola virus disease. Tembo J, Simulundu E, Changula K, Handley D, Gilbert M, Chilufya M, Asogun D, Ansumana R, Kapata N, Ntoumi F, Ippolito G, Zumla A, Bates M. Expert Rev Mol Diagn. 2019 Apr;19(4):325-340
- Monkeypox - Enhancing public health preparedness for an emerging lethal human zoonotic epidemic threat in the wake of the smallpox post-eradication era. Petersen E, Abubakar I, Ihekweazu C, Heymann D, Ntoumi F, Blumberg L, Asogun D, Mukonka V, Lule SA, Bates M, Honeyborne I, Mfinanga S, Mwaba P, Dar O, Vairo F, Mukhtar M, Kock R, McHugh TD, Ippolito G, Zumla A. Int J Infect Dis. 2019 Jan;78:78-84.
- Clinical Efficacy, Safety, and Immunogenicity of a Live Attenuated Tetravalent Dengue Vaccine (CYD-TDV) in Children: A Systematic Review with Meta-analysis. Malisheni M, Khaiboullina SF, Rizvanov AA, Takah N, Murewanhema G, Bates M. Front Immunol. 2017 Aug 4;8:863 PDF
preparedness for tackling new epidemic threats. Zumla A, Ippolito G, McCloskey B, Bates M, Ansumana R, Heymann D, Kock R,
Ntoumi F. Lancet Respir Med. 2017
- Lujo viral hemorrhagic fever: considering diagnostic capacity and preparedness in the wake of recent Ebola and Zika virus outbreaks. Simulundu E, Mweene AS, Changula K, Monze M, Chizema E, Mwaba P, Takada A, Ippolito G, Kasolo F, Zumla A, Bates M. Rev Med Virol. 2016 Sep 5. PDF
forward a 'One Health' approach for turning the tide against the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus and other zoonotic pathogens with epidemic
- Zumla A, Dar O, Kock R, Muturi M, Ntoumi F, Kaleebu P,
Eusebio M, Mfinanga S, Bates M,
Mwaba P, Ansumana R, Khan M, Alagaili AN, Cotten M, Azhar EI, Maeurer M,
Ippolito G, Petersen E. Int J Infect Dis. 2016 Jun;47:5-9.
- Zika virus outbreak and
the case for building effective and sustainable rapid diagnostics laboratory
capacity globally. Zumla A, Goodfellow I, Kasolo F, Ntoumi F, Buchy P, Bates M, Azhar EI, Cotten M, Petersen
E. Int J Infect Dis. 2016 Apr;45:92-4.
Ebola trials--lessons for
optimal outbreak research. Ippolito G,
Lanini S, Brouqui P, Di Caro A, Vairo F, Fusco FM, Krishna S, Capobianchi MR,
Kyobe-Bosa H, Puro V, Wölfel R, Avsic-Zupanc T, Ioannidis JP, Portella G,
Kremsner P, Dar O, Bates M, Zumla A. Lancet Infect Dis. 2016
- Rapid Spread
of Zika Virus in The
Americas--Implications for Public Health Preparedness for Mass Gatherings at
the 2016 Brazil Olympic Games. Petersen E,
Wilson ME, Touch S, McCloskey B, Mwaba P, Bates M, Dar O, Mattes F, Kidd M, Ippolito G, Azhar EI, Zumla A.
- Int J Infect Dis. 2016 Mar;44:11-5.
- Ebola: missed opportunities for
Europe-Africa research. Ippolito G, Lanini S,
Brouqui P, Di Caro A, Vairo F, Abdulla S, Fusco FM, Krishna S, Capobianchi MR,
Kyobe-Bosa H, Lewis DJ, Puro V, Wolfel R, Avsic-Zupanc T, Dar O, Mwaba P, Bates M, Heymann D, Zumla A. Lancet Infect Dis. 2015
- Middle East Respiratory Syndrome--need for increased vigilance and watchful surveillance
for MERS-CoV in sub-Saharan
Africa. Zumla A, Rustomjee R, Ntoumi F, Mwaba P, Bates M, Maeurer M, Hui DS, Petersen E. Int J Infect Dis. 2015
novel and antimicrobial-resistant respiratory
tract infections: new drug development and therapeutic options. Zumla
A, Memish ZA, Maeurer M, Bates
M, Mwaba P, Al-Tawfiq JA, Denning DW, Hayden FG, Hui DS. Lancet Infect Dis.
- The Hajj
pilgrimage and surveillance for Middle East Respiratory syndrome
coronavirus in pilgrims from African countries. Zumla A, Mwaba P, Bates M, Al-Tawfiq JA, Maeurer M, Memish
ZA. Trop Med Int Health. 2014 Jul;19(7):838-40.